### Policies for Carbon Energy Footprint Reduction of Overhead Multiple-Input Multiple-Output High Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks

#### Abstract

The impact of different environmental policies on the broadband performance of overhead multiple-input multiple-output

high-voltage/broadband over power lines (MIMO/HV/BPL) networks is investigated in this paper. The examined environmental policies focus on the carbon energy footprint reduction of overhead MIMO/HV/BPL networks while respecting their broadband character.

The contribution of this paper is three-fold. First, the spectral and environmental performance of various configurations and topologies of overhead MIMO/HV/BPL networks is assessed with regard to respective spectral efficient (SE) and newly presented environmental efficient (EE) metrics. Second, further insights regarding the performance of overhead MIMO/HV/BPL networks highlight the better spectral and environmental performance of these networks against other today’s overhead HV/BPL networks, such as single-input single-output (SISO), single-input multiple-output (SIMO), or multiple-input single-output (MISO) ones. Third, the definition of appropriate environmental policies that optimize the coexistence of the three main sectors of concern, which are the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, protection of existing radioservices and promotion of environmentally aware limits, is promoted. Towards that direction, the proposed SE/EE trade-off relation of this paper is expected to prove an extremely helpful SE/EE optimization technique.

**Citation:** Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2015). Policies for Carbon Energy Footprint Reduction of Overhead Multiple-Input Multiple-Output High Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks. *Trends in Renewable Energy*, 1(2), 87-118. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2015.1.2.0011

#### Keywords

#### Full Text:

FULL TEXT (PDF)#### References

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Designing Broadband over Power Lines Networks Using the Techno-Economic Pedagogical (TEP) Method – Part I: Overhead High Voltage Networks and Their Capacity Characteristics,” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 16-42, Mar. 2015. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2015.1.1.002

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Designing Broadband over Power Lines Networks Using the Techno-Economic Pedagogical (TEP) Method – Part II: Overhead Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage Channels and Their Modal Transmission Characteristics,” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 59-86, Jun. 2015. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2015.1.1.006

T. A. Papadopoulos, G.K. Papagiannis, and D.P. Labridis, “A generalized model for the calculation of the impedances and admittances of overhead power lines above stratified earth,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 1160-1170. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2010.03.009

T. A. Papadopoulos, C. G. Kaloudas, and G. K. Papagiannis, “A multipath channel model for PLC systems based on nodal method and modal analysis,” in Proc. 2007 IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC’07), Pisa, Italy, Mar. 2007, pp. 278–283. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2007.371137

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Broadband Transmission Characteristics of Overhead High-Voltage Power Line Communication Channels,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 36, pp. 373-398, 2012. DOI:10.2528/PIERB11091408

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Broadband Transmission and Statistical Performance Properties of Overhead High-Voltage Transmission Networks,” Hindawi Journal of Computer Networks and Commun., 2012, article ID 875632, 2012. DOI: 10.1155/2012/875632

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Green Overhead and Underground Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Medium Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks: Energy-Efficient Power Control,” Springer Journal of Global Optimization, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 997-1024, Oct. 2012. DOI: 10.1007/s10898-012-9988-y

OPERA1, D44: Report presenting the architecture of plc system, the electricity network topologies, the operating modes and the equipment over which PLC access system will be installed, IST Integr. Project No 507667, Dec. 2005.

P. S. Georgilakis and N. D. Hatziargyriou, “A Review of Power Distribution Planning in the Modern Power Systems Era: Models, Methods and Future Research,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 121, pp. 89-100, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2014.12.010

L. Gkatzikis, G. Iosifidis, I. Koutsopoulos, and L. Tassiulas, “Collaborative Placement and Sharing of Storage Resources in the Smart Grid,” In Proc. 2014 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), pp. 103-108, Nov. 2014. DOI: 10.1109/SmartGridComm.2014.7007630

D. I. Giokas and G. C. Pentzaropoulos, “Evaluating productive efficiency in telecommunications: Evidence from Greece,” Telecommunications Policy, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 781-794, 2000. DOI: 10.1016/S0308-5961(00)00053-7

L. Wang, G. Avolio, G. Deconinck, E. Van Lil, and L. L. Lai, “Estimation of multi-conductor powerline cable parameters for the modelling of transfer characteristics,” IET Science, Measurement & Technology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 39-45, Jan. 2014. DOI: 10.1049/iet-smt.2012.0123

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Deployment Concepts for Overhead High Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Connections with Two-Hop Repeater System: Capacity Countermeasures against Aggravated Topologies and High Noise Environments,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 44,

pp. 283-307, 2012. DOI: 10.2528/PIERB12081104, [Online]. Available: http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pierb44/13.12081104.pdf

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Overhead and Underground MIMO Low Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks and EMI Regulations: Towards Greener Capacity Performances,” Elsevier Computers and Electrical Engineering, vol. 39, pp. 2214-2230, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.compeleceng.2013.02.003

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Wireless Sensor Network Design for Transmission Line Monitoring, Metering and Controlling Introducing Broadband over PowerLines-enhanced Network Model (BPLeNM),” ISRN Power Engineering, vol. 2014, Article ID 894628, 22 pages, 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/894628. [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn.power.engineering/2014/894628/

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Transmission characteristics of overhead medium voltage power line communication channels,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1164-1173, Jul. 2009. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2008.2008467

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Capacity of overhead medium voltage power line communication channels,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 723-733, Apr. 2010. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2034907

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Broadband transmission via underground medium-voltage power lines-Part I: transmission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2414-2424, Oct. 2010. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2048929

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Broadband transmission via underground medium-voltage power lines-Part II: capacity,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2425-2434, Oct. 2010. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2052113

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Towards Broadband over Power Lines Systems Integration: Transmission Characteristics of Underground Low-Voltage Distribution Power Lines,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, 39, pp. 89-114, 2012. DOI: 10.2528/PIERB12012409

L. Stadelmeier, D. Schneider, D. Schill, A. Schwager, and J. Speidel, “MIMO for Inhome Power Line Communications,” presented at the Int. Conf. on Source and Channel Coding, Ulm, Germany, Jan. 2008.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Towards Modal Integration of Overhead and Underground Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage Power Line Communication Channels in the Smart Grid Landscape: Model Expansion, Broadband Signal Transmission Characteristics, and Statistical Performance Metrics (Invited Paper),”

ISRN Signal Processing, vol. 2012, Article ID 121628, pp. 1-17, 2012.

DOI: 10.5402/2012/121628 [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/isrn/sp/2012/121628/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Review and Progress towards the Common Broadband Management of High-Voltage Transmission Grids: Model Expansion and Comparative Modal Analysis,” ISRN Electronics, vol. 2012, Article ID 935286, pp. 1-18, 2012. DOI: 10.5402/2012/935286 [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/isrn/electronics/2012/935286/

S. Galli, A. Scaglione, and K. Dostert, “Broadband is power: internet access through the power line network (Guest Editorial),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 82–83, May 2003. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2003.1200105

M. Götz, M. Rapp, and K. Dostert, “Power line channel characteristics and their effect on communication system design,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 78-86, Apr. 2004. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2004.1284933

S. Galli and O. Logvinov, “Recent developments in the standardization of power line communications within the IEEE,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 64-71, Jul. 2008. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2008.4557044

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Wireless Sensors and Broadband over PowerLines Networks: The Performance of Broadband over PowerLines-enhanced Network Model (BPLeNM) (Invited Paper),” ICAS Publishing Group Transaction on IoT and Cloud Computing, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1-35, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://icas-pub.org/ojs/index.php/ticc/article/view/27/17

T. A. Papadopoulos, B. D. Batalas, A. Radis, and G. K. Papagiannis, “Medium voltage network PLC modeling and signal propagation analysis,” in Proc. 2007 IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and its Applications (ISPLC’07), Pisa, Italy, Mar. 2007, pp. 284–289. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2007.371138

A. I. Chrysochos, T. A. Papadopoulos, and G. K. Papagiannis, “Enhancing the frequency-domain calculation of transients in multiconductor power transmission lines,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 122, pp. 56-64, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2014.12.024

T. A. Papadopoulos, A. I. Chrysochos, A. I. Nousdilis, and G. K. Papagiannis, “Simplified measurement-based black-box modeling of distribution transformers using transfer functions,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 121, pp. 77-88, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2014.12.003

F. Versolatto and A. M. Tonello, “An MTL theory approach for the simulation of MIMO power-line communication channels,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1710-1717, Jul. 2011. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2011.2126608

D. Schneider, J. Speidel, L. Stadelmeier, and D. Schill, “Precoded spatial multiplexing MIMO for inhome power line communications,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, New Orleans, LA, USA, Nov./Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2008.ECP.556

V. Oksman and S. Galli, “G.hn: The new ITU-T home networking standard,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 138–145, Oct. 2009. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2009.5273821

M. Tlich, A. Zeddam, F. Moulin, and F. Gauthier, “Indoor power-line communications channel characterization up to 100 MHz–Part I: one parameter deterministic model,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1392–1401, July 2008. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2008.919397

R. Hashmat, P. Pagani, A. Zeddam, and T. Chonavel, “MIMO communications for inhome PLC networks: Measurements and results up to 100MHz,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Mar. 2010, pp. 120–124. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2010.5479897

A. Canova, N. Benvenuto, and P. Bisaglia, “Receivers for MIMO-PLC channels: Throughput comparison,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Mar. 2010, pp. 114–119. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2010.5479904

D. Schneider, A. Schwager, J. Speidel and A. Dilly, “Implementation and Results of a MIMO PLC Feasibility Study,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Udine, Italy, Apr. 2011, pp. 54–59. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2011.5764450

M. Biagi, “MIMO self-interference mitigation effects on PLC relay networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Udine, Italy, Apr. 2011, pp. 182–186. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2011.5764387

M. Biagi, “MIMO self-interference mitigation effects on power line relay networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 866–868, Aug. 2011. DOI: 10.1109/LCOMM.2011.062911.110230

A. Schwager, D. Schneider, W. Bäschlin, A. Dilly, and J. Speidel, “MIMO PLC: Theory, Measurements and System Setup,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Udine, Italy, Apr. 2011, pp. 48–53. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2011.5764447

F. Versolatto and A. M. Tonello, “A MIMO PLC random channel generator and capacity analysis,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Udine, Italy, pp. 66–71, Apr. 2011. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2011.5764452

Z. Hasan, H. Boostanimehr, and V. K. Bhargava, “Green cellular networks: A survey, some research issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 524–540, Oct. 2011. DOI: 10.1109/SURV.2011.092311.00031

3GPP, “Telecommunication management; Study on Energy Savings Management (ESM), (Release 10),” Tech. Rep. TR 32.826, Mar 2010. Available: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/32826.htm

ITU-T Focus Group on Future Networks (FG FN), FG-FN OD-66, Draft Deliverable on “Overview of Energy Saving of Networks”, Oct. 2010.

C. Yan, Z. Shunqing, X. Shugong, and G. Y. Li, “Fundamental trade-offs on green wireless networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 30–37, Jun. 2011. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2011.5783982

J. Abouei, K. N. Plataniotis, and S. Pasupathy, “Green modulations in energy-constrained wireless sensor networks,” IET Commun., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 240–251, Jan. 2011. DOI: 10.1049/iet-com.2010.0472

S. Ruth, “Green IT More Than a Three Percent Solution?,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 74–78, Jul.-Aug. 2009. DOI: 10.1109/MIC.2009.82

Y. G. Li, J. H. Winters, N. R. Sollenberger, “MIMO-OFDM for wireless communications: signal detection with enhanced channel estimation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 1471–1477, Sep. 2002. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2002.802566

A. Amanna, A. He, T. Tsou, X. Chen, D. Datla, T. R. Newman, J. H. Reed, and T. Bose, “Green Communications: A New Paradigm for Creating Cost Effective Wireless Systems,” Tech. Rep., 2009, [Online]. Available: http://filebox.vt.edu/users/aamanna/web%20page/Green%20Communications-draft%20journal%20paper.pdf

Y. Z. Ying and K. B. Letaief, “An efficient resource-allocation scheme for spatial multiuser access in MIMO/OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 107–116, Jan. 2005. DOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2004.840666

S. K. Jayaweera, “Virtual MIMO-based cooperative communication for energy-constrained wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 984–989, May 2006. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2006.1633350

R. Eickhoff, R. Kraemer, I. Santamaria, and L. Gonzalez, “Developing energy-efficient MIMO radios,” IEEE Veh. Tech. Mag., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 34–41, Mar. 2009. DOI: 10.1109/MVT.2009.931994

T. Sartenaer, “Multiuser communications over frequency selective wired channels and applications to the powerline access network” Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Catholique Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Sep. 2004.

P. Amirshahi and M. Kavehrad, “High-frequency characteristics of overhead multiconductor power lines for broadband communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1292-1303, Jul. 2006. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2006.874399

T. Calliacoudas and F. Issa, ““Multiconductor transmission lines and cables solver,” An efficient simulation tool for plc channel networks development,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Athens, Greece, Mar. 2002.

S. Galli and T. Banwell, “A deterministic frequency-domain model for the indoor power line transfer function,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1304-1316, Jul. 2006. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2006.874428

S. Galli and T. Banwell, “A novel approach to accurate modeling of the indoor power line channel-Part II: Transfer function and channel properties,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1869-1878, Jul. 2005. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2005.848732

T. Sartenaer and P. Delogne, “Deterministic modelling of the (Shielded) outdoor powerline channel based on the multiconductor transmission line equations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1277-1291, Jul. 2006. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2006.874423

T. Sartenaer and P. Delogne, “Powerline cables modelling for broadband communications,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Malmö, Sweden, Apr. 2001, pp. 331-337.

C. R. Paul, Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines. New York: Wiley, 1994.

J. A. B. Faria, Multiconductor Transmission-Line Structures: Modal Analysis Techniques. New York: Wiley, 1994.

A. Pérez, A. M. Sánchez, J. R. Regué, M. Ribό, R. Aquilué, P. Rodréguez-Cepeda, and F. J. Pajares, “Circuital and modal characterization of the power-line network in the PLC band,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1182-1189, Jul. 2009. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2014278

H. Meng, S. Chen, Y. L. Guan, C. L. Law, P. L. So, E. Gunawan, and T. T. Lie, “Modeling of transfer characteristics for the broadband power line communication channel,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1057-1064, Jul. 2004. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2004.824430

A. Goldsmith, S. A. Jafar, N. Jindal, and S.Vishwanath, “Capacity limits of MIMO channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 684–702, Jun. 2003. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2003.810294

K. Hooghe and M. Guenach, “Toward green copper broadband access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 87–93, Aug. 2011. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2011.5978420

S. Cui, A. J. Goldsmith, and A. Bahai, “Energy-Efficiency of MIMO and Cooperative MIMO Techniques in Sensor Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1089–1098, Aug. 2004. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2004.830916

A. He, S. Srikanteswara, K. K. Bae, T. R. Newman, J. H. Reed, W. H. Tranter, M. Sajadieh, and M. Verhelst, “Power consumption minimization for MIMO systems – A cognitive radio approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 469–479, Feb. 2011. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2011.110218

C. Isheden and G. P. Fettweis, “Energy-efficient multi-carrier link adaptation with sum rate-dependent circuit power,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Miami, FL, USA, Dec. 2010, pp. 1-6. DOI: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2010.5683700

DLC+VIT4IP, D1.2: Overall system architecture design DLC system architecture. FP7 Integrated Project No 247750, Jun. 2010.

K. Dostert, Powerline Communications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.

M. Gebhardt, F. Weinmann, and K. Dostert, “Physical and regulatory constraints for communication over the power supply grid,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 84-90, May 2003. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2003.1200106

P. Amirshahi, “Broadband access and home networking through powerline networks” Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA, May 2006. [Online]. Available: http://etda.libraries.psu.edu/theses/approved/WorldWideIndex/ETD-1205/index.html

U. A. Bakshi and M. V. Bakshi, Generation, Transmission and Distribution. Pune, India: Technical Publications Pune, 2001.

J. C. de Sosa, Analysis and Design of High-Voltage Transmission Lines. Bloomington, IN, USA: iUniverse Incorporated, 2010.

J. Kuffel, E. Kuffel, and W. S. Zaengl, High-Voltage Engineering Fundamentals. Woburn, MA, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001.

N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “Approximate computation of high-frequency characteristics for power line with horizontal disposition and middle-phase to ground coupling,” Elsevier Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 69, pp. 17-24, Jan. 2004. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2003.07.005

N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “High-frequency characteristics of high-voltage power line,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer as a Tool, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Sep. 2003, pp. 310-314. DOI: 10.1109/EURCON.2003.1248206

N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “Power-line high-frequency characteristics: analytical formulation,” in Proc. Joint 1st Workshop on Mobile Future & Symposium on Trends in Communications, Bratislava, Slovakia, Oct. 2003, pp. 106-109. DOI: 10.1109/TIC.2003.1249100

W. Villiers, J. H. Cloete, and R. Herman, “The feasibility of ampacity control on HV transmission lines using the PLC system,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Africon, George, South Africa, Oct. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 865-870. DOI: 10.1109/AFRCON.2002.1160027

M. Zajc, N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, and J. F. Tasič, “Frequency characteristics measurement of overhead high-voltage power-line in low radio-frequency range,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 2142-2149, Oct. 2007. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2007.905369

M. D’Amore and M. S. Sarto, “A new formulation of lossy ground return parameters for transient analysis of multiconductor dissipative lines,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 303-314, Jan. 1997. DOI: 10.1109/61.568254

P. Amirshahi and M. Kavehrad, “Medium voltage overhead power-line broadband communications; Transmission capacity and electromagnetic interference,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Commun. Appl., Vancouver, BC, Canada, Apr. 2005, pp. 2-6. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2005.1430454

M. D’Amore and M. S. Sarto, “Simulation models of a dissipative transmission line above a lossy ground for a wide-frequency range. I: Single conductor configuration,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 127-138, May 1996. DOI: 10.1109/15.494615

M. D’Amore and M. S. Sarto, “Simulation models of a dissipative transmission line above a lossy ground for a wide-frequency range. II: Multi-conductor configuration,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 139-149, May 1996. DOI: 10.1109/15.494616

J. Anatory and N. Theethayi, “On the efficacy of using ground return in the broadband power-line communications-A transmission-line analysis,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 132-139, Jan. 2008. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2007.910987

J. R. Carson, “Wave propagation in overhead wires with ground return,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 5, pp. 539-554, 1926. DOI: 10.1002/j.1538-7305.1926.tb00122.x

H. Kikuchi, “Wave propagation along an infinite wire above ground at high frequencies,” Proc. Electrotech. J., vol. 2, pp. 73-78, Dec. 1956.

H. Kikuchi, “On the transition form a ground return circuit to a surface waveguide,” Proc. Int. Congr. Ultrahigh Frequency Circuits Antennas, Paris, France, Oct. 1957, pp. 39-45.

R. Pighi and R. Raheli, “On Multicarrier Signal Transmission for High-Voltage Power Lines," in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Commun. Appl., Vancouver, BC, Canada, Apr. 2005, pp. 32-36. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2005.1430460

N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “Integrated communication model of the HV power-line channel,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Zaragoza, Spain, Mar/Apr. 2004, pp. 79-84.

F. Issa, D. Chaffanjon, E. P. de la Bâthie, and A. Pacaud, “An efficient tool for modal analysis transmission lines for PLC networks development,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Athens, Greece, Mar. 2002.

W. Villiers, J. H. Cloete, L. M. Wedepohl, and A. Burger, “Real-time sag monitoring system for high-voltage overhead transmission lines based on power-line carrier signal behavior,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 389-395, Jan. 2008. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2007.905550

S. G. Lodwig and C. C. Schuetz, “Coupling to control cables in HV substations,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. ElectroMagentic Compatibility, Montreal, Canada, Mar. 2001, pp. 249-253. DOI: 10.1109/ISEMC.2001.950621

D. Anastasiadou and T. Antonakopoulos, “Multipath characterization of indoor power-line networks,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 90-99, Jan. 2005. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2004.832373

S. Barmada, A. Musolino, and M. Raugi, “Innovative model for time-varying power line communication channel response evaluation,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1317-1326, Jul. 2006. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2006.874426

R. S. Prabhu and B. Daneshrad, “Energy-efficient power loading for a MIMO-SVD system and its performance in flat fading,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Miami, FL, USA, Dec. 2010, pp. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2010.5683485

A. G. Kanatas, D. Vouyioukas, G. Zheng, and L. Clavier, “Beamforming Techniques for Wireless MIMO Relay Networks,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2014, Article ID 354714, 2 pages, 2014. DOI: 10.1155/2014/354714

E. Biglieri, J. Proakis, and S. Shamai (Shitz), “Fading channels: Information theoretic and communications aspects,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 44, pp. 2619–2692, Oct. 1998. DOI: 10.1109/18.720551

L. M. Kuhn, S. Berger, I. Hammerström, and A. Wittneben, “Power line enhanced cooperative wireless communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1401-1410, Jul. 2006. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2006.874407

NATO, “HF Interference, Procedures and Tools (Interférences HF, procédures et outils) Final Report of NATO RTO Information Systems Technology,” RTO-TR-ISTR-050, Jun. 2007, [Online]. Available: http://ftp.rta.nato.int/public/PubFullText/RTO/TR/RTO-TR-IST-050/$$TR-IST-050-ALL.pdf

Ofcom, “Amperion PLT Measurements in Crieff,” Ofcom, Tech. Rep., Sept. 2005, [Online]. Available: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/technology/research/archive/cet/powerline/

NTIA, “Potential interference from broadband over power line (BPL) systems to federal government radio communications at 1.7-80 MHz Phase 1 Study Vol. 1,” NTIA Rep. 04-413, Apr. 2004, [Online]. Available: http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/fccfilings/2004/bpl/

Ofcom, “DS2 PLT Measurements in Crieff,” Ofcom, Tech. Rep. 793 (Part 2), May 2005, [Online]. Available: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/technology/research/archive/cet/powerline/ds2.pdf

Ofcom, “Ascom PLT Measurements in Winchester,” Ofcom, Tech. Rep. 793 (Part 1), May 2005.

J. Song, C. Pan, Q. Wu, Z. Yang, H. Liu, B. Zhao, and X. Li, “Field Trial of Digital Video Transmission over Medium-Voltage Powerline with Time-Domain Synchronous Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Technology,” in Proc. 2007 IEEE Int. Symp. on Power Line Communications and its Applications, ISPLC’07, pp. 559-564, Pisa, Italy, Mar. 2007. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2007.371077

S. Liu and L. J. Greenstein, “Emission characteristics and interference constraint of overhead medium-voltage broadband power line (BPL) systems,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., New Orleans, LA, USA, Nov./Dec. 2008, pp. 1-5. DOI: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2008.ECP.560

R. Aquilué, I. Gutierrez, J. L. Pijoan, and G. Sánchez, “High-voltage multicarrier spread-spectrum system field test,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1112-1121, Jul. 2009. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2008.2002847

M. Zimmermann and K. Dostert, “Analysis and modeling of impulsive noise in broad-band powerline communications,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 249-258, Feb. 2002. DOI: 10.1109/15.990732

M. Katayama, T. Yamazato, and H. Okada, “A mathematical model of noise in narrowband power line communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1267-1276, Jul. 2006. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2006.874408

R. Aquilué, M. Ribó, J. R. Regué, J. L. Pijoan, and G. Sánchez, “Scattering Parameters-Based Channel Characterization and Modeling for Underground Medium-Voltage Power-Line Communications,” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1122-1131, Jul. 2009. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2008.2002963

S. Cui, A. J. Goldsmith, and A. Bahai, “Energy-constrained modulation optimization for coded systems,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, Dec. 2003, pp. 372–376. DOI: 10.1109/GLOCOM.2003.1258264

S. Cui, A. J. Goldsmith, and A. Bahai, “Energy-constrained modulation optimization,” IEEE Trans.Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 2349–2360, Sep. 2005. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2005.853882

M. Steyaert, B. De Muer, P. Leroux, M. Borremans, and K. Mertens, “Low-voltage low-power CMOS-RF transceiver design,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 50, pp. 281–287, Jan. 2002. DOI: 10.1109/22.981281

P. J. Sullivan, B. A. Xavier, and W. H. Ku, “Low voltage performance of a microwave CMOS Gilbert cell mixer,” IEEE J. Solid-Sate Circuits, vol. 32, pp. 1151–1155, July 1997. DOI: 10.1109/4.597309

G. Koutitas, “Green network planning of single frequency networks,” IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 541–550, Dec. 2010. DOI: 10.1109/TBC.2010.2056252

International Energy Agency (IEA), “CO2 emissions from fuel combustion – Highlights,” IEA Statistics Rep., 2009.

D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, D. S. Shiu, P. Smith, and A. Naguib, “From theory to practice: An overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas. Commun., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 281–302, Apr. 2003. DOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2003.809458

H. Latchman and L. Yonge, “Power line local area networking (Guest Editorial),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 32–33, Apr. 2003.

E. Fortunato, A. Garibbo, and L. Petrolino, “An experimental system for digital power line communications over high voltage electric power lines–field trials and obtained results,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Kyoto, Japan, Mar. 2003, pp. 26-31.

J. Anatory, N. Theethayi, and R. Thottappillil, “Power-line communication channel model for interconnected networks-Part II: Multiconductor system,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 124-128, Jan. 2009. DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2008.2005681

T. Yoo and A. Goldsmith, “Capacity and Power Allocation for Fading MIMO Channels With Channel Estimation Error,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 2203–2214, May 2006. DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2006.872984

M. Antoniali, A. M. Tonello, M. Lenardon, and A. Qualizza, “Measurements and analysis of PLC channels in a cruise ship,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Udine, Italy, Apr. 2011, pp. 102–107. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2011.5764372

N. Pine and C. Sangho, “Modified multipath model for broadband MIMO power line communications,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Commun. Appl., Beijing, China, Mar. 2012, pp. 292-297. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2012.6201312

A. Tomasoni, R. Riva, and S. Bellini, “Spatial correlation analysis and model for in-home MIMO power line channels,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Commun. Appl., Beijing, China, Mar. 2012, pp. 286-291. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2012.6201325

D. Schneider, A. Schwager, W. Baschlin, and P. Pagani, “European MIMO PLC field measurements: Channel analysis,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Commun. Appl., Beijing, China, Mar. 2012, pp. 304-309. DOI: 10.1109/ISPLC.2012.6201316

C. Xiong, G. Y. Li, S. Zhang, Y. Chen, and S. Xu, “Energy- and spectral-efficiency tradeoff in downlink OFDMA networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 3874–3886, Nov. 2011. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2011.091411.110249

G. P. Green, “Amenities and community economic development: Strategies for sustainability,” Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 61-76, 2001.

G. T. Heydt, R. Ayyanar, K. W. Hedman, and V. Vittal, “Electric Power and Energy Engineering: The First Century,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 100, pp. 1315-1328, May 2012. DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2012.2187130

S. S. Pappas, L. Ekonomou, D. C. Karamousantas, G. E. Chatzarakis, S. K. Katsikas, and P. Liatsis, “Electricity Demand Loads Modeling Using AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARMA) Models,” Energy, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1353-1360, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2008.05.008

I. C. Demetriou, “An Application of Best L1 Piecewise Monotonic Data Approximation to Signal Restoration,” IAENG International Journal of Applied Mathematics, to appear. [Online]. Available: http://www.iaeng.org/IJAM/issues_v43/issue_4/IJAM_43_4_09.pdf

I. C. Demetriou, “L1PMA: A Fortran 77 Package for Best L1 Piecewise Monotonic Data Smoothing”, Computer Physics Communications, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 315-338, 2003. DOI: 10.1016/S0010-4655(02)00739-7

G. Athanasiou, I. Karafyllis, and S. Kotsios, “Price Stabilization Using Buffer Stocks,” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 1212-1235, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.jedc.2007.05.004

S. Kotsios, “Stabilization of Certain Discrete Volterra Systems an Algorithmic Approach,” in Proc. of IEEE 2014 11th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO), Vienna, Austria, vol. 1, pp. 629-634, Sep. 2014.

I. C. Demetriou and E. E. Vassiliou, “An algorithm for distributed lag estimation subject to piecewise monotonic coefficients,” IAENG Int. J. Appl. Math, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 82-91, 2009.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17737/tre.2015.1.2.0011

### Refbacks

- There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Copyright @2014-2019 Trends in Renewable Energy (ISSN: 2376-2136, online ISSN: 2376-2144)