World on the Road to 100% Renewable Energy

Nima Norouzi, Maryam Fani

Abstract


In the study, the current and future status of renewable energy resources were compiled in the light of large databases of national and international renewable energy institutions, and the latest situation in the world in the transition to 100% renewable energy was examined. The extent of the goal for the transition to 100% renewable energy has been determined, and predictions have been made based on all this information. In today’s world where energy and environmental problems are on the agenda, countries’ transition to renewable energy is the primary solution. This goal is called the transition to 100% renewable energy, which brings advantages such as providing needed energy and producing clean energy. Today, renewable energy sources account for more than one-third of the global energy capacity, and the world is rapidly moving towards 100% renewable energy. Compared with 2017, the total amount of renewable energy in 2018 increased by 181 GW, and the number of countries with an increase in the proportion of renewable energy increased. Taking into account the external dependence of the use of fossil fuels and environmental issues, this development is at a promising level in the future. In order to shift from highly polluting oil resources to natural gas and renewable resources, this article aims to investigate the current global energy transition trends, and then propose some important strategies to get closer to upstream goals and obligations in this way.

Citation: Norouzi, N., and Fani, M. (2021). World on the Road to 100% Renewable Energy. Trends in Renewable Energy, 7, 114-126. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2021.7.1.00132


Keywords


100% Renewable Energy; Alternative Energy Sources; Fossil Fuel; Energy policy; sustainable economics

Full Text:

FULL TEXT (PDF)

References


Farfan, J., Fasihi, M., and Breyer, C. (2019). Trends in the global cement industry and opportunities for long-term sustainable CCU potential for Power-to-X. Journal of Cleaner Production, 217, 821-835. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.226

Yuan, B., Kongstein, O. E., and Haarberg, G. M. (2009). Electrowinning of Iron in Aqueous Alkaline Solution Using a Rotating Cathode. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 156(2), D64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1149/1.3039998.

Kermeli, K., ter Weer, P.-H., Crijns-Graus, W., and Worrell, E. (2015). Energy efficiency improvement and GHG abatement in the global production of primary aluminium. Energy Efficiency, 8(4), 629-666. DOI: 10.1007/s12053-014-9301-7

Suhr, M., Klein, G., Kourti, I., Gonzalo, M.R., Santonja, G.G., Roudier, S., and Sancho, L.D., (2015). Best available techniques (BAT) reference document for the production of pulp, paper and board. Eur. Comm, 906. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2791/370629

Kangas, P., Onarheim, K., Hankalin, V., and Santos, S. (2016). Carbon capture from integrated pulp and board mill. In 19th Conf Process Integr Model Optim Energy Savings Emiss Reduct, Prague, Czech Republic

Caldera, U., and Breyer, C. (2020). Strengthening the global water supply through a decarbonised global desalination sector and improved irrigation systems. Energy, 200, 117507. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.117507

Bogdanov, D., and Breyer, C. (2016). North-East Asian Super Grid for 100% renewable energy supply: Optimal mix of energy technologies for electricity, gas and heat supply options. Energy Conversion and Management, 112, 176-190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.01.019

Stackhouse, P. and Whitlock, C. (2009). Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Methodology. National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA). Langley, VA, USA

Norouzi, N., & Fani, M. (2022). Post-Covid-19 Energy Transition Strategies: Even Reaching 100% Renewable in Ecuador by 2055 is not Enough to Face Climate Change Issue. Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy & Environment, 13(1), 1-9. DOI:10.5829/ijee.2022.13.01.01

Stetter, D. (2012). Enhancement of the REMix energy system model: global renewable energy potentials, optimized power plant siting and scenario validation, University of Stuttgart, PhD thesis

Afanasyeva, S., Bogdanov, D., and Breyer, C. (2018). Relevance of PV with single-axis tracking for energy scenarios. Solar Energy, 173, 173-191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2018.07.029

Verzano K. (2009). Climate Change Impacts on Flood Related Hydrological Processes: Further Development and Application of a Global Scale Hydrological Model. University of Kassel

Thrän, D., Buchhorn, M., Bunzel, K., Seyfert, U., Zeller, V., Müller, K., Matzdorf, B., Gaasch, N., Klöckner, K., Möller, I. and Starick, A. (2010). Globale und regionale Verteilung von Biomassepotenzialen Status-quo und Möglichkeiten der Präzisierung.

Eisentraut, A. and Brown, A. (2013). Technology roadmap: bioenergy for heat and power. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 24(1). DOI: 10.1108/meq.2013.08324aaa.005

IPCC. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation — IPCC. Geneva: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/renewable-energy-sources-and- climate-change-mitigation/ (accessed on August 24, 2020).

Aghahosseini, A., Bogdanov, D., and Breyer, C. (2017). A Techno-Economic Study of an Entirely Renewable Energy-Based Power Supply for North America for 2030 Conditions. Energies, 10(8), 1171.

Norouzi, N., de Rubens, G. Z., Choupanpiesheh, S., & Enevoldsen, P. (2020). When pandemics impact economies and climate change: exploring the impacts of COVID-19 on oil and electricity demand in China. Energy Research & Social Science, 68, 101654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101654

Aghahosseini, A. and Breyer, C. (2018). Assessment of geological resource potential for compressed air energy storage in global electricity supply. Energy Conversion and Management, 169, 161-173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.05.058

World Steel Association. (2008). Steel and Energy Fact Sheet. Brussels: ttp://www.steelforpackaging.org/uploads/ModuleXtender/Themesslides/10/Fact_sheet_ Energy.pdf (accessed on August 24, 2020)

Fasihi, M., Bogdanov, D., and Breyer, C. (2016). Techno-Economic Assessment of Power-to-Liquids (PtL) Fuels Production and Global Trading Based on Hybrid PV-Wind Power Plants. Energy Procedia, 99, 243-268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.10.115

Fasihi, M., Weiss, R., Savolainen, J., and Breyer, C. (2021). Global potential of green ammonia based on hybrid PV-wind power plants. Applied Energy, 294, 116170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.116170

Fasihi, M., Breyer, C. (2017). Synthetic Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Production based on Hybrid PV-Wind Power Plants. 11th Int. Renew. Energy Storage Conf. (IRES 2017), Düsseldorf, March 14-16, 2017

European Aluminium Association. Life Cycle Inventory data for aluminium production and transformation processes in Europe. Brussels: 2013. https:// european-aluminium.eu/media/1329/environmental-profile-report-for-the- european-aluminium-industry.pdf (accessed on August 24, 2020)

[EC] - European Commission. Greenmelt - Laymans report. Duffel: 2000. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/files/laymanReport/LIFE96_ ENV_B_000477_LAYMAN.pdf (accessed on August 24, 2020)

Australian Government Department of Industry Innovation and Science, Resources and Energy Quarterly - March 2018. Canberra: 2018. https://publications.industry.gov.au/publications/resourcesandenergyquarterlymarch2018/index.html (accessed on August 24, 2020)

World Aluminium — Mass Flow Statistics n.d. http://www.world-aluminium.org/statistics/massflow/ (accessed on August 24, 2020)

Kuparinen, K., Vakkilainen, E., and Tynjälä, T. (2019). Biomass-based carbon capture and utilization in kraft pulpmills. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 24(7), 1213-1230. DOI: 10.1007/s11027-018-9833-9

Caldera, U., Bogdanov, D., Afanasyeva, S., and Breyer, C. (2018). Role of Seawater Desalination in the Management of an Integrated Water and 100% Renewable Energy Based Power Sector in Saudi Arabia. Water, 10(1), 3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010003

Caldera, U., and Breyer, C. (2018). The role that battery and water storage play in Saudi Arabia’s transition to an integrated 100% renewable energy power system. Journal of Energy Storage, 17, 299-310. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2018.03.009

Norouzi, N., & Kalantari, G. (2020). The sun food-water-energy nexus governance model a case study for Iran. Water-Energy Nexus, 3, 72-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wen.2020.05.005.

Praliyev, N., Zhunis, K., Kalel, Y., Dikhanbayeva, D., and Rojas-Solórzano, L. (2020). Impact of One- and Two-axis Solar Tracking on Techno-Economic Viability of On-Grid PV Systems: Case of Burnoye-1, Kazakhstan. International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management, 29, 79–90. https://doi.org/10.5278/ijsepm.3665.

Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies, A., Schramm, S., and Greiner, M. (2018). Synergies of sector coupling and transmission reinforcement in a cost-optimised, highly renewable European energy system. Energy, 160, 720-739. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.06.222

Norouzi, N. (2021). 4E analysis of a fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid energy system. Biointerface Res. Appl. Chem., 11, 7568-7579.

Mathiesen, B. V., Lund, H., Connolly, D., Wenzel, H., Østergaard, P. A., Möller, B., Nielsen, S., Ridjan, I., Karnøe, P., Sperling, K., and Hvelplund, F. K. (2015). Smart Energy Systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions. Applied Energy, 145, 139-154. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.075

Gils, H. C., Simon, S., and Soria, R. (2017). 100% Renewable Energy Supply for Brazil—The Role of Sector Coupling and Regional Development. Energies, 10(11), 1859. https://doi. org/10.3390/en10111859

Taljegard, M., Walter, V., Göransson, L., Odenberger, M., and Johnsson, F. (2019). Impact of electric vehicles on the cost-competitiveness of generation and storage technologies in the electricity system. Environmental Research Letters, 14(12), 124087. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab5e6b

Breyer, C., Fasihi, M., Bajamundi, C., and Creutzig, F. (2019). Direct Air Capture of CO2: A Key Technology for Ambitious Climate Change Mitigation. Joule, 3(9), 2053-2057. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2019.08.010




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17737/tre.2021.7.1.00132

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Nima Norouzi, Maryam Fani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Copyright @2014-2022 Trends in Renewable Energy (ISSN: 2376-2136, online ISSN: 2376-2144)