Financially Stimulating Local Economies by Exploiting Communities’ Microgrids: Power Trading and Hybrid Techno-Economic (HTE) Model

Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos, Panagiotis Lazaropoulos

Abstract


This paper thoroughly considers the potential of installing microgrids (MGs) in communities that suffer from the economic crisis in order to financially stimulate their local economies. Exploiting the state-of-the-art evolutions in the fields of the MG technology, the Hybrid Techno-Economic (HTE) model is proposed as a suitable techno-economic tool for assessing the power generation/consumption behaviour and the financial performance of these communities’ MGs.

The contribution of this paper is four-fold. First, the HTE model is presented. HTE model describes a theoretical analysis that is suitable for studying community’s MGs. Appropriately concatenating one well-validated technical module and one new economic module, the HTE model quickly and conveniently reveals the power generation/consumption and economic profile of community’s MGs. Second, HTE model is integrated through an extended portfolio of power and financial metrics. The applied metrics study the influence of generation and consumption power changes on community’s MGs. The validity and the efficiency of the HTE model are examined with respect to these power changes while the impact of these changes on the power and cash flows of community’s MGs are assessed. Third, a cost-benefit analysis of the operation of community’s MGs accompanied with a financial stability analysis is also demonstrated. The main outcome of these analyses is the daily total benefit (TB) of community’s MGs with its respective financial bounds. Fourth, the contribution of the energy arbitrage and the power production mix among available power sources of community’s MGs to the daily TB is investigated.

Apart from promoting the ecological awareness, this paper tries to become a catching argument for the communities in order to exploit the community’s MGs.

Citation: Lazaropoulos, A. G., and Lazaropoulos, P. (2015). Financially Stimulating Local Economies by Exploiting Communities’ Microgrids: Power Trading and Hybrid Techno-Economic (HTE) Model. Trends in Renewable Energy, 1(3), 131-184. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2015.1.3.0014


Keywords


Microgrids (MGs); Power Trading; Energy Arbitrage; Energy Storage Systems (ESSs); Distributed Generation (DG) sources; Renewable Energy Sources (RESs); Green Economy; Sustainable Development and Growth; Economy of Local Communities; Smart Grid

Full Text:

FULL TEXT (PDF)

References


Taylor, J. B. (2009). The Financial Crisis and the Policy Responses: An Empirical Analysis of What Went Wrong. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 14631. DOI: 10.3386/w14631

United States. Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission. (2011). The Financial Crisis Inquiry Report: final report of the national commission on the causes of the financial and economic crisis in the United States. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-FCIC/content-detail.html (Accessed on 09/10/2015).

Martin, R. (2010). The local geographies of the financial crisis: from the housing bubble to economic recession and beyond. Journal of Economic Geography. DOI: 10.1093/jeg/lbq024

Pauly, L. W. (2008). Financial Crisis Management in Europe and Beyond. Contributions to Political Economy, 27(1), 73-89. DOI: 10.1093/cpe/bzn006

Blakely, E. J. and Leigh, N. G. (2009). Planning local economic development: Theory and practice. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

Smith, G. (2005). Green Citizenship and the Social Economy. Environmental Politics, 14(2), 273-289. DOI: 10.1080/09644010500055175

Green, G. P. (2001). Amenities and community economic development: Strategies for sustainability. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 31(2), 61-76.

Heydt, G. T., Ayyanar, R., Hedman, K. W., and Vittal, V. (2012). Electric Power and Energy Engineering: The First Century. Proceedings of the IEEE, 100(Special Centennial Issue), 1315-1328. DOI: 10.1109/jproc.2012.2187130

Sechilariu, M., Wang, B., and Locment, F. (2013). Building Integrated Photovoltaic System with Energy Storage and Smart Grid Communication. Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 60(4), 1607-1618. DOI: 10.1109/tie.2012.2222852

Nehrir, M. H., Wang, C., Strunz, K., Aki, H., Ramakumar, R., Bing, J., Zhixhin, Miao, Z., and Salameh, Z. A review of hybrid renewable/alternative energy systems for electric power generation: Configurations, control and applications. In: Proc., Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE, pp: 1-1. DOI: 10.1109/pesgm.2012.6344852

Whittingham, M. S. (2012). History, Evolution, and Future Status of Energy Storage. Proceedings of the IEEE, 100(Special Centennial Issue), 1518-1534. DOI: 10.1109/jproc.2012.2190170

Xu, Z., Guan, X., Jia, Q.S., Wu, J., Wang, D. and Chen, S. (2012). Performance Analysis and Comparison on Energy Storage Devices for Smart Building Energy Management. Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, 3(4), 2136-2147. DOI: 10.1109/tsg.2012.2218836

Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2012). Towards broadband over power lines systems integration: transmission characteristics of underground low-voltage distribution power lines. Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, 39, 89-114. DOI:10.2528/PIERB12012409

Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2012). Towards Modal Integration of Overhead and Underground Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage Power Line Communication Channels in the Smart Grid Landscape: Model Expansion, Broadband Signal Transmission Characteristics, and Statistical Performance Metrics (Invited Paper). ISRN Signal Processing, 2012, 17. DOI: 10.5402/2012/121628

Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2012). Factors influencing broadband transmission characteristics of underground low-voltage distribution networks. Communications, IET, 6(17), 2886-2893. DOI: 10.1049/iet-com.2011.0661

Yao, D. L., Choi, S. S., Tseng, K. J., and Lie, T. T. (2009). A Statistical Approach to the Design of a Dispatchable Wind Power-Battery Energy Storage System. Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on, 24(4), 916-925. DOI: 10.1109/tec.2009.2025331

Bragard, M., Soltau, N., Thomas, S., and De Doncker, R. W. (2010). The Balance of Renewable Sources and User Demands in Grids: Power Electronics for Modular Battery Energy Storage Systems. Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 25(12), 3049-3056. DOI: 10.1109/tpel.2010.2085455

Jong-Yul, K., Jin-Hong, J., Seul-Ki, K., Changhee, C., June Ho, P., Hak-Man, K., and Kee-Young, N. (2010). Cooperative Control Strategy of Energy Storage System and Microsources for Stabilizing the Microgrid during Islanded Operation. Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 25(12), 3037-3048. DOI: 10.1109/tpel.2010.2073488

Lu, M. S., Chang, C. L., Lee, W. J., and Wang, L. (2009). Combining the Wind Power Generation System with Energy Storage Equipment. Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, 45(6), 2109-2115. DOI: 10.1109/tia.2009.2031937

Krishnaswami, H., and Mohan, N. (2009). Three-Port Series-Resonant DC-DC Converter to Interface Renewable Energy Sources With Bidirectional Load and Energy Storage Ports. Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 24(10), 2289-2297. DOI: 10.1109/tpel.2009.2022756

Mercier, P., Cherkaoui, R., and Oudalov, A. (2009). Optimizing a Battery Energy Storage System for Frequency Control Application in an Isolated Power System. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 24(3), 1469-1477. DOI: 10.1109/tpwrs.2009.2022997

Hartmann, B., and Dan, A. (2012). Cooperation of a Grid-Connected Wind Farm and an Energy Storage Unit-Demonstration of a Simulation Tool. Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on, 3(1), 49-56. DOI: 10.1109/tste.2011.2163176

Heussen, K., Koch, S., Ulbig, A., and Andersson, G. (2012). Unified System-Level Modeling of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage for Power System Operation. Systems Journal, IEEE, 6(1), 140-151. DOI: 10.1109/jsyst.2011.2163020

Agalgaonkar, A. P., Dobariya, C. V., Kanabar, M. G., Khaparde, S. A., and Kulkarni, S. V. Optimal sizing of distributed generators in microgrid. In: Proc., Power India Conference, 2006 IEEE, pp: 8 pp. DOI: 10.1109/poweri.2006.1632627

Tsikalakis, A. G., and Hatziargyriou, N. D. Financial evaluation of Renewable Energy Source production in microgrids markets using probabilistic analysis. In: Proc., Power Tech, 2005 IEEE Russia, pp: 1-7. DOI: 10.1109/ptc.2005.4524361

Robert, H. L., Abbas, A. A., Chris, M., John, S., Jeffery, E. D., Ross, T. G., Meliopoulous, A. S., Robert, J. Y., and Joseph, H. E. (2003). Integration of Distributed Energy Resources: The CERTS MicroGrid Concept. CERTS. http://eetd.lbl.gov/node/50096 (Accessed on 09/10/2015).

Hatziargyriou, N., Jenkins, N., Strbac, G., Lopes, J. P., Ruela, J., Engler, A., Oyarzabal, J., Kariniotakis, G., and Amorim, A. (2006). Microgrids–large scale integration of microgeneration to low voltage grids. CIGRE C6-309.

Wang, B., and Venkataramanan, G. Dynamic Voltage Restorer Utilizing a Matrix Converter and Flywheel Energy Storage. In: Proc., Industry Applications Conference, 2007. 42nd IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE, pp: 208-215. DOI: 10.1109/07ias.2007.39

Baalbergen, F., Bauer, P., and Ferreira, J. A. (2009). Energy Storage and Power Management for Typical 4Q-Load. Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 56(5), 1485-1498. DOI: 10.1109/tie.2009.2012416

Vazquez, S., Lukic, S. M., Galvan, E., Franquelo, L. G., and Carrasco, J. M. (2010). Energy Storage Systems for Transport and Grid Applications. Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 57(12), 3881-3895. DOI: 10.1109/tie.2010.2076414

Chua, K. H., Lim, Y. S., Taylor, P., Morris, S., and Wong, J. (2012). Energy Storage System for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance on Low-Voltage Networks With Photovoltaic Systems. Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, 27(4), 1783-1790. DOI: 10.1109/tpwrd.2012.2195035

Fu, Q., Montoya, L. F., Solanki, A., Nasiri, A., Bhavaraju, V., Abdallah, T., and Yu, D. C. (2012). Microgrid Generation Capacity Design With Renewables and Energy Storage Addressing Power Quality and Surety. Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, 3(4), 2019-2027. DOI: 10.1109/tsg.2012.2223245

Ivanovic, Z. R., Adzic, E. M., Vekic, M. S., Grabic, S. U., Celanovic, N. L., and Katić, V. (2012). HIL Evaluation of Power Flow Control Strategies for Energy Storage Connected to Smart Grid Under Unbalanced Conditions. Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 27(11), 4699-4710. DOI: 10.1109/tpel.2012.2184772

Guerrero, J. M., Poh Chiang, L., Tzung-Lin, L., and Chandorkar, M. (2013). Advanced Control Architectures for Intelligent Microgrids-Part II: Power Quality, Energy Storage, and AC/DC Microgrids. Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 60(4), 1263-1270. DOI: 10.1109/tie.2012.2196889

Kundur, P., Paserba, J., Ajjarapu, V., Andersson, G., Bose, A., Canizares, C., Hatziargyriou, N., Hill, D., Stankovic, A., Taylor, C., Van Cutsem, T., and Vittal, V. (2004). Definition and classification of power system stability IEEE/CIGRE joint task force on stability terms and definitions. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 19(3), 1387-1401. DOI: 10.1109/tpwrs.2004.825981

Sioshansi, R., Denholm, P., Jenkin, T., and Weiss, J. (2009). Estimating the value of electricity storage in PJM: Arbitrage and some welfare effects. Energy Economics, 31(2), 269-277. DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2008.10.005

Thatte, A. A., and Xie, L. (2012). Towards a Unified Operational Value Index of Energy Storage in Smart Grid Environment. Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, 3(3), 1418-1426. DOI: 10.1109/tsg.2012.2190114

DeCarolis, J. F., and Keith, D. W. (2006). The economics of large-scale wind power in a carbon constrained world. Energy Policy, 34(4), 395-410. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2004.06.007

Sugihara, H., Yokoyama, K., Saeki, O., Tsuji, K., and Funaki, T. (2013). Economic and Efficient Voltage Management Using Customer-Owned Energy Storage Systems in a Distribution Network With High Penetration of Photovoltaic Systems. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 28(1), 102-111. DOI: 10.1109/tpwrs.2012.2196529

Sioshansi, R. (2011). Increasing the value of wind with energy storage. Energy Journal, 32(2), 1-29.

Walawalkar, R., Apt, J., and Mancini, R. (2007). Economics of electric energy storage for energy arbitrage and regulation in New York. Energy Policy, 35(4), 2558-2568. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2006.09.005

Guo, Y., and Fang, Y. (2013). Electricity Cost Saving Strategy in Data Centers by Using Energy Storage. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 24(6), 1149-1160. DOI: 10.1109/tpds.2012.201

Schill, W.-P., and Kemfert, C. (2009). The effect of market power on electricity storage utilization: The case of pumped hydro storage in Germany. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1507094 (Accessed on 09/11/15).

Bathurst, G. N., and Strbac, G. (2003). Value of combining energy storage and wind in short-term energy and balancing markets. Electric Power Systems Research, 67(1), 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-7796(03)00050-6

Eyer, J. M., Iannucci, J. J., and Corey, G. P. (2004). Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook, a study for the doe energy storage systems program. Sandia National Labratories. http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.cgi/2004/046177.pdf (Accessed on 09/11/15).

Figueiredo, F. C., Flynn, P. C., and Cabral, E. A. (2005). The economics of energy storage. Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Meeting of Energy Storage Association, Toronto, Canada.

Manz, D., Piwko, R., and Miller, N. (2012). Look Before You Leap: The Role of Energy Storage in the Grid. Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, 10(4), 75-84. DOI: 10.1109/mpe.2012.2196337

Bludszuweit, H., and Dominguez-Navarro, J. A. (2011). A Probabilistic Method for Energy Storage Sizing Based on Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 26(3), 1651-1658. DOI: 10.1109/tpwrs.2010.2089541

Chen, C., Duan, S., Cai, T., Liu, B., and Hu, G. (2011). Optimal allocation and economic analysis of energy storage system in microgrids. Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 26(10), 2762-2773. DOI: 10.1109/tpel.2011.2116808

Elmitwally, A., and Rashed, M. (2011). Flexible Operation Strategy for an Isolated PV-Diesel Microgrid without Energy Storage. Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on, 26(1), 235-244. DOI: 10.1109/tec.2010.2082090

Kienzle, F., Ahčin, P., and Andersson, G. (2011). Valuing Investments in Multi-Energy Conversion, Storage, and Demand-Side Management Systems under Uncertainty. Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on, 2(2), 194-202. DOI: 10.1109/tste.2011.2106228

Chen, S. X., Gooi, H. B., and Wang, M. (2012). Sizing of energy storage for microgrids. Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on, 3(1), 142-151. DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2011.2160745

Gohn, B., and Wheelock, C. (2010). Smart Grid: Ten trends to watch in 2011 and beyond. Texas Institute for Sustainable Technology Research, Tech. Rep. http://www.sbdi.co.kr/email/2010/20101028/[Pike-Research]_White_Paper_Smart-grid-ten-trends-to-watch-in-2011-and-beyond.pdf (Accessed on 09/11/15).

Sobieski, D. W., and Bhavaraju, M. P. (1985). An Economic Assessment of Battery Storage in Electric Utility Systems. Power Engineering Review, IEEE, PER-5(12), 40-40. DOI: 10.1109/mper.1985.5528621

Fabjan, C., Garche, J., Harrer, B., Jörissen, L., Kolbeck, C., Philippi, F., Tomazic, G., and Wagner, F. (2001). The vanadium redox-battery: an efficient storage unit for photovoltaic systems. Electrochimica Acta, 47(5), 825-831. DOI: 10.1016/S0013-4686(01)00763-0

Su, W. F., Huang, S. J., and Lin, C. E. (2001). Economic analysis for demand-side hybrid photovoltaic and battery energy storage system. Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, 37(1), 171-177. DOI: 10.1109/28.903143

Butler, P. C., Iannucci, J., and Eyer, J. (2003). Innovative business cases for energy storage in a restructured electricity marketplace,” Sandia National Laboratories Tech. Rep., SAND2003-0362. http://www.prod.sandia.gov/cgi-bin/techlib/access-control.pl/2003/030362.pdf (Accessed on 09/11/15).

Schoenung, S., and Hassenzahl, W. (2003) “Long vs short term energy storage technologies analysis,” Sandia National Laboratories Tech. Rep., SAND2003-2783. http://www.prod.sandia.gov/cgi-bin/techlib/access-control.pl/2003/032783.pdf (Accessed on 09/11/15).

Graves, F., Jenkin, T., and Murphy, D. (1999). Opportunities for Electricity Storage in Deregulating Markets. The Electricity Journal, 12(8), 46-56. DOI: 10.1016/S1040-6190(99)00071-8

Perekhodtsev, D. (2004). Two essays on problems of deregulated electricity markets (Doctoral dissertation, Carnegie Mellon University). http://wpweb2.tepper.cmu.edu/ceic/theses/Dmitri_Perekhodtsev_PhD_Thesis_2004.pdf (Accessed on 09/11/15).

Eckroad, S., and Gyuk, I. (2003). EPRI-DOE handbook of energy storage for transmission & distribution applications. Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. http://www.sandia.gov/ess/publications/ESHB%201001834%20reduced%20size.pdf (Accessed on 09/11/15).

Perez, E., Beltran, H., Aparicio, N., and Rodriguez, P. (2013). Predictive Power Control for PV Plants with Energy Storage. Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on, 4(2), 482-490. DOI: 10.1109/tste.2012.2210255

Sechilariu, M., Baochao, W., and Locment, F. (2013). Building Integrated Photovoltaic System with Energy Storage and Smart Grid Communication. Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 60(4), 1607-1618. DOI: 10.1109/tie.2012.2222852

Lyapunov, A. M. (1992). The general problem of the stability of motion. International Journal of Control, 55(3), 531-534. DOI: 10.1080/00207179208934253

Wang, X. Y., Vilathgamuwa, D., and Choi, S. S. (2008). Determination of battery storage capacity in energy buffer for wind farm. Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on, 23(3), 868-878. DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2008.921556

Beltran, H., Perez, E., Aparicio, N., and Rodriguez, P. (2013). Daily Solar Energy Estimation for Minimizing Energy Storage Requirements in PV Power Plants. Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on, 4(2), 474-481. DOI: 10.1109/tste.2012.2206413

Halamay, D. A., Brekken, T. K. A., Simmons, A., and McArthur, S. (2011). Reserve Requirement Impacts of Large-Scale Integration of Wind, Solar, and Ocean Wave Power Generation. Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on, 2(3), 321-328. DOI: 10.1109/tste.2011.2114902

Nourai, A., and Kearns, D. (2010). Batteries Included. Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, 8(2), 49-54. DOI: 10.1109/mpe.2009.935555

Teleke, S., Baran, M. E., Bhattacharya, S., and Huang, A. Q. (2010). Rule-Based Control of Battery Energy Storage for Dispatching Intermittent Renewable Sources. Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on, 1(3), 117-124. DOI: 10.1109/tste.2010.2061880

Denholm, P., and Margolis, R. M. (2007). Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies. Energy Policy, 35(9), 4424-4433. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2007.03.004

Energy Information Administration, (2011). Annual energy outlook 2011. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/index.html (Accessed on 09/11/15).

Billinton, R., Chen, H., and Ghajar, R. (1996). Time-series models for reliability evaluation of power systems including wind energy. Microelectronics Reliability, 36(9), 1253-1261. DOI: 10.1016/0026-2714(95)00154-9

Hoff, J. L., Townsend, L. W., and Hines, J. W. (2003). Prediction of energetic solar particle event dose-time profiles using artificial neural networks. Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on, 50(6), 2296-2300. DOI: 10.1109/tns.2003.821817

Sideratos, G., and Hatziargyriou, N. D. (2007). An Advanced Statistical Method for Wind Power Forecasting. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 22(1), 258-265. DOI: 10.1109/tpwrs.2006.889078

Tao, C., Shanxu, D., and Changsong, C. (2010). Forecasting power output for grid-connected photovoltaic power system without using solar radiation measurement. In: Proc., Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), 2010 2nd IEEE International Symposium on, pp: 773-777. DOI: 10.1109/pedg.2010.5545754

Ernst, B., Oakleaf, B., Ahlstrom, M. L., Lange, M., Moehrlen, C., Lange, B., Focken, U., and Rohrig, K. (2007). Predicting the Wind. Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, 5(6), 78-89. DOI: 10.1109/mpe.2007.906306

Xiao, W., Lind, M. G. J., Dunford, W. G., and Capel, A. (2006). Real-Time Identification of Optimal Operating Points in Photovoltaic Power Systems. Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 53(4), 1017-1026. DOI: 10.1109/tie.2006.878355

Soder, L. Simulation of wind speed forecast errors for operation planning of multiarea power systems. In: Proc., Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, 2004 International Conference on, pp: 723-728.

Kirawanich, P., and O'Connell, R. M. Potential harmonic impact of a residential utility-interactive photovoltaic system. In: Proc., Harmonics and Quality of Power, 2000. Proceedings. Ninth International Conference on, pp: 983-987 vol.3. DOI: 10.1109/ichqp.2000.896862

Ruey-Hsun, L., and Jian-Hao, L. (2007). A Fuzzy-Optimization Approach for Generation Scheduling With Wind and Solar Energy Systems. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 22(4), 1665-1674. DOI: 10.1109/tpwrs.2007.907527

Barbounis, T. G., Theocharis, J. B., Alexiadis, M. C., and Dokopoulos, P. S. (2006). Long-term wind speed and power forecasting using local recurrent neural network models. Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on, 21(1), 273-284. DOI: 10.1109/tec.2005.847954

Borowy, B. S., and Salameh, Z. M. (1994). Optimum photovoltaic array size for a hybrid wind/PV system. Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on, 9(3), 482-488. DOI: 10.1109/60.326466

Denholm, P., Ela, E., Kirby, B., and Milligan, M. (2010). The role of energy storage with renewable electricity generation. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Tec. Rep NREL/TP-6A2-47187. http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/renew_pubs/5/ (Accessed on 09/12/15).

Hatziargyriou, N., Asano, H., Iravani, R., and Marnay, C. (2007). Microgrids. Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, 5(4), 78-94. DOI: 10.1109/mpae.2007.376583

Andersson, G., Donalek, P., Farmer, R., Hatziargyriou, N., Kamwa, I., Kundur, P., Martins, N., Paserba, J., Pourbeik, P., Sanchez-Gasca, J., Schulz, R., Stankovic, A., Taylor, C., and Vittal, V. (2005). Causes of the 2003 major grid blackouts in North America and Europe, and recommended means to improve system dynamic performance. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 20(4), 1922-1928. DOI: 10.1109/tpwrs.2005.857942

Katiraei, F., Iravani, R., Hatziargyriou, N., and Dimeas, A. (2008). Microgrids management. Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, 6(3), 54-65. DOI: 10.1109/mpe.2008.918702

Lopes, J. A. P., Hatziargyriou, N., Mutale, J., Djapic, P., and Jenkins, N. (2007). Integrating distributed generation into electric power systems: A review of drivers, challenges and opportunities. Electric Power Systems Research, 77(9), 1189-1203. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2006.08.016

Munson, M., Jaskulski, G., and Thomas, C. (2011). If These Walls Could Think. Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, 9(1), 50-55. DOI: 10.1109/mpe.2010.939163

Morvaj, B., Lugaric, L., and Krajcar, S. Demonstrating smart buildings and smart grid features in a smart energy city. In: Proc., Energetics (IYCE), Proceedings of the 2011 3rd International Youth Conference on, pp: 1-8.

Moss Kanter, R., and Litow, S. S. (2009). Informed and interconnected: A manifesto for smarter cities. Harvard Business School General Management Unit Working Paper, (09-141). http://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/09-141.pdf (Accessed on 09/12/15).

Mohagheghi, S., Stoupis, J., Zhenyuan, W., Zhao, L., and Kazemzadeh, H. Demand Response Architecture: Integration into the Distribution Management System. In: Proc., Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), 2010 First IEEE International Conference on, pp: 501-506. DOI: 10.1109/smartgrid.2010.5622094

Delaney, D. T., O'Hare, G. M., and Ruzzelli, A. G. (2009, November). Evaluation of energy-efficiency in lighting systems using sensor networks. In Proc. ACM Workshop on Embedded Sensing Systems for Energy-Efficiency in Buildings, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp. 61–66.

Erickson, V. L., Lin, Y., Kamthe, A., Brahme, R., Surana, A., Cerpa, A. E., and Narayanan, S. (2009). Energy efficient building environment control strategies using real-time occupancy measurements. In Proc. ACM Workshop on Embedded Sensing Systems for Energy-Efficiency in Buildings, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp. 19–24.

Gao, G., and Whitehouse, K. (2009). The self-programming thermostat: optimizing setback schedules based on home occupancy patterns. In Proc. ACM Workshop on Embedded Sensing Systems for Energy-Efficiency in Buildings, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp. 67–72.

Agarwal, Y., Balaji, B., Gupta, R., Lyles, J., Wei, M., and Weng, T. (2010). Occupancy-driven energy management for smart building automation. In Proc. ACM Workshop on Embedded Sensing Systems For Energy-Efficiency In Buildings, Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 1–6.

Le Gal, C., Martin, J., Lux, A., and Crowley, J. L. (2001). SmartOffice: design of an intelligent environment. Intelligent Systems, IEEE, 16(4), 60-66. DOI: 10.1109/5254.941359

Fuhrer, P., and Guinard, D. (2006). Building a Smart Hospital using RFID Technologies. ECEH, 91, 131-142.

Al Nahas, H., and Deogun, J. S. Radio Frequency Identification Applications in Smart Hospitals. In: Proc., Computer-Based Medical Systems, 2007. CBMS '07. Twentieth IEEE International Symposium on, pp: 337-342. DOI: 10.1109/cbms.2007.90

Stavropoulos, T., Tsioliaridou, A., Koutitas, G., Vrakas, D., and Vlahavas, I. (2010). System Architecture for a Smart University Building. In: Artificial Neural Networks – ICANN 2010, K. Diamantaras, et al., eds., Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp: 477-482. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-15825-4_64

Aqeel ur, R., Abbasi, A. Z., and Shaikh, Z. A. (2008). Building a Smart University Using RFID Technology. In: Proc., Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2008 International Conference on, pp: 641-644. DOI: 10.1109/csse.2008.1528

Weiser, M. (2009). The computer of the 21st century. Scientific American, 265(3): 66-75. DOI: 10.1038/scientificamerican0991-94

Bravos, G., and Kanatas, A. G. Energy consumption and trade-offs on wireless sensor networks. In: Proc., Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2005. PIMRC 2005. IEEE 16th International Symposium on, pp: 1279-1283 Vol. 2. DOI: 10.1109/pimrc.2005.1651647

Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2014). Wireless Sensor Network Design for Transmission Line Monitoring, Metering, and Controlling: Introducing Broadband over Power Lines-Enhanced Network Model (BPLeNM). ISRN Power Engineering, vol. 2014, Article ID 894628, 22 pages. DOI:10.1155/2014/894628

Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2014). Wireless Sensors and Broadband over PowerLines Networks: The Performance of Broadband over PowerLines-enhanced Network Model (BPLeNM). Transaction on IoT and Cloud Computing, 2(2), 9-37.

Bibi, S., Katsaros, D., and Bozanis, P. Application Development: Fly to the Clouds or Stay In-house? In: Proc., Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE), 2010 19th IEEE International Workshop on, pp: 60-65. DOI: 10.1109/wetice.2010.16

Giokas, D. I., and Pentzaropoulos, G. C. (2008). Efficiency ranking of the OECD member states in the area of telecommunications: A composite AHP/DEA study. Telecommunications Policy, 32(9–10), 672-685. DOI: 10.1016/j.telpol.2008.07.007

Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2013). Practical coupled resonators in domino arrangements for power transmission and distribution: replacing step-down power transformers and their branches across the power grid. Journal of Energy, vol. 2013, Article ID 795835, pp. 1-25, 2013. DOI: 10.1155/2013/795835

Kontogianni, A., Skourtos, M., and Papandreou, A. (2006). Shared Waters—shared Responsibility. Application of the Principles of Fairness for Burden Sharing in the Mediterranean. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 6(2), 209-230. DOI: 10.1007/s10784-006-9006-2

Athanasiou, G., Karafyllis, I., and Kotsios, S. (2008). Price stabilization using buffer stocks. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 32(4), 1212-1235. DOI: 10.1016/j.jedc.2007.05.004

Papakonstantinou, S. S., and Demetriou, I. C. (2014). Data Engineering by the Best l1 Convex Data Fitting Method. In Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, vol. 1, London, UK.

Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2015). Policies for Carbon Energy Footprint Reduction of Overhead Multiple-Input Multiple-Output High Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks. Trends in Renewable Energy, 1(2), 87-118. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2015.1.2.0011

Kotsios, S. Stabilization of certain discrete volterra systems an algorithmic approach. In: Proc., Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO), 2014 11th International Conference on, pp: 629-634.

Demetriou, I. C. (1995). Algorithm 742: L2CXFT: a Fortran subroutine for least-squares data fitting with nonnegative second divided differences. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS), 21(1), 98-110.

Demetriou, I. C. (2015). An Example of Peak Finding in Univariate Data by Least Squares Approximation and Restrictions on the Signs of the First Differences. In Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, vol. 2, London, UK.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17737/tre.2015.1.3.0014

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos and Panagiotis Lazaropoulos

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Copyright @2014-2019 Trends in Renewable Energy (ISSN: 2376-2136, online ISSN: 2376-2144)