Assessment of Temporal Trend in Surface Air Temperatures across Some Selected Eco-Climatic Zones in Nigeria

L.E. KING, S.O. Udo, I.O. Ewona, S.O. Amadi, E.D. Ebong, M.D. Umoh


Temporal trends in surface air temperatures across some selected eco-climatic zones in Nigeria from 1981 to 2018 were assessed using the Merra-2 reanalysis dataset. A total of 15 stations spread across the eco-climatic zones in Nigeria were used for this study. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) trend test was used to detect direction, significance, coefficients of time trends, while the linear regression and the Sen’s slope trend tests were used to estimate the trend magnitudes. The M-K trend test showed that the surface air maximum temperature of 14 stations had monotonic increasing trends, of which 13 stations were statistically significant at the 0.01 significance level, and 1 station was statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. However, the M-K trend test also showed that surface air minimum temperature for all the 15 stations (representing 100%), showed monotonic upward trends, statistically significant at the 0.01 significance level. The Sen's slope and linear trend tests showed higher trend magnitudes at most stations, particularly stations in the Guinea-wooded, Sudan and Sahel savannas. The estimated mean trend magnitudes of maximum and minimum air surface temperatures increased by approximately 0.035°C/year and 0.036°C/year, respectively. The estimated mean air surface temperature increased by approximately 0.036°C/year and approximately 1.4°C for Nigeria over the 38-year period. The study then presents a linear trend projection of mean air surface temperature increase in Nigeria of approximately 4.3°C by 2100. This is 0.2°C below maximum levels and within the range of approximately 1.5 to 4.5°C that global air surface temperature is projected to rise by 2100 in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007 report. The M-K and linear trend tests were fully consistent with the standardized time series anomaly plots. Mean annual values of the air surface temperatures showed latitudinal dependence. The manifestation of significant long-term trends at high confidence levels in the air surface temperatures over the period, provides a clear evidence that the climate of Nigeria is witnessing a possible human-induced radiative forcing and a strong tendency for the occurrences of climate-related extreme events and their resulting adverse implications. 

Citation: KING, L.E., Udo, S.O., Ewona, I.O., Amadi, S.O., Ebong, E.D., & Umoh, M.D. (2024). Assessment of Temporal Trend in Surface Air Temperatures across Some Selected Eco-Climatic Zones in Nigeria. Trends in Renewable Energy, 10, 132-158. doi:


Trend; Temporal, Maximum temperature; Minimum temperature; Radiative forcing; Nigeria

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