### Measurement Differences, Faults and Instabilities in Intelligent Energy Systems – Part 2: Fault and Instability Prediction in Overhead High-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks by Applying Fault and Instability Identification Methodology (FIIM)

#### Abstract

This companion paper of [1] focuses on the prediction of various faults and instabilities that may occur during the operation of the transmission power grid when overhead high-voltage broadband over power lines (OV HV BPL) networks are deployed across it. Having already been identified the theoretical OV HV BPL transfer function for a given OV HV BPL network [1], the faults and instabilities of the transmission power grid are first differentiated from the measurement differences, which can occur during the determination of an OV HV BPL transfer function, and, then, are identified by applying the best L1 Piecewise Monotonic data Approximation (best L1PMA) to the measured OV HV BPL transfer function. When faults and instabilities are detected, a warning is issued.

The contribution of this paper is triple. First, the Topology Identification Methodology (TIM) of [1] is here extended to the proposed Fault and Instability Identification Methodology (FIIM) so that faults and instabilities across the transmission power grid can be identified. Also, the curve similarity performance percentage metric (CSPpM) that acts as the accompanying performance metric of FIIM is introduced. Second, the impact of various fault and instability conditions on the OV HV BPL transfer functions is demonstrated. Third, the fault and instability prediction procedure by applying the FIIM is first reported.

**Citation:** Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2016). Measurement Differences, Faults and Instabilities in Intelligent Energy Systems – Part 2: Fault and Instability Prediction in Overhead High-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks by Applying Fault and Instability Identification Methodology (FIIM). Trends in Renewable Energy, 2(3), 113-142. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2016.2.3.0027

#### Keywords

#### Full Text:

FULL TEXT (PDF)#### References

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Measurement Differences, Faults and Instabilities in Intelligent Energy Systems – Part 1: Identification of Overhead High-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Network Topologies by Applying Topology Identification Methodology (TIM),” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 85-112, 2016. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2016.2.3.0026

A. Milioudis, G. T. Andreou, and D. P. Labridis, “Detection and location of high impedance faults in multiconductor overhead distribution lines using power line communication devices,” IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 894-902, 2015.

T. A. Papadopoulos, A. I. Chrysochos, E. O. Kontis, and G. K. Papagiannis, “Ringdown Analysis of Power Systems Using Vector Fitting,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 141, pp. 100-103, 2016.

A. Milioudis, G. Andreou, and D. Labridis, “Optimum transmitted power spectral distribution for broadband power line communication systems considering electromagnetic emissions,” Elsevier Electric Power Systems Research, in press, 2016.

S. S. Pappas, L. Ekonomou, D. C. Karamousantas, G. E. Chatzarakis, S. K. Katsikas, and P. Liatsis, “Electricity Demand Loads Modeling Using AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARMA) Models,” Energy, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1353-1360, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2008.05.008

R. Lee and R. H. Osborn, “A microcomputer based data acquisition system for high impedance fault analysis,” IEEE Power Eng. Rev., vol. PER-5, no. 10, p. 35, Oct. 1985.

S. Ebron, D. Lubkeman, and M. White, “A neural network approach to the detection of incipient faults on power distribution feeders,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 905–914, Apr. 1990.

J.-H. Ko, J.-C. Shim, C.-W. Ryu, C.-G. Park, and W.-Y. Yim, Detection of high impedance faults using neural nets and chaotic degree,” in Proc. 1998 Int. Conf. Energy Manage. Power Del. (EMPD), vol. 2. Singapore, pp. 399–404.

F. Jota and P. R. S. Jota, “High-impedance fault identification using a fuzzy reasoning system,” IEE Proc. Gener. Transmiss. Distrib., vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 656–661, Nov. 1998.

Y. Sheng and S. Rovnyak, “Decision tree-based methodology for high impedance fault detection,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 533–536, Apr. 2004.

D. C. T. Wai and X. Yibin, “A novel technique for high impedance fault identification,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 738–744, Jul. 1998.

I. Zamora, A. Mazon, K. J. Sagastabeitia, and J. Zamora, “New method for detecting low current faults in electrical distribution systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 2072–2079, Oct. 2007.

J. Zamora, I. Zamora, A. Mazon, and K. J. Sagastabeitia, “Optimal frequency value to detect low current faults superposing voltage tones,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1773–1779, Oct. 2008.

M. Michalik, W. Rebizant, M. Lukowicz, S.-J. Lee, and S.-H. Kang, “High-impedance fault detection in distribution networks with use of wavelet-based algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1793–1802, Oct. 2006.

M. Michalik, M. Lukowicz, W. Rebizant, S.-J. Lee, and S.-H. Kang, “Verification of the wavelet-based HIF detecting algorithm performance in solidly grounded MV networks,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 2057–2064, Oct. 2007.

B. Aucoin and B. Russell, “Distribution high impedance fault detection utilizing high frequency current components,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-101, no. 6, pp. 1596–1606, Jun. 1982.

A. N. Milioudis, G. T. Andreou, and D. P. Labridis, “Enhanced Protection Scheme for Smart Grids Using Power Line Communications Techniques—Part II: Location of High Impedance Fault Position,” IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, no. 3, vol. 4, pp. 1631-1640, 2012.

A. Milioudis, G. Andreou, and D. Labridis, “High impedance fault detection using power line communication techniques,” in Proc. 2010 45th Int. Univ. Power Eng. Conf. (UPEC), Cardiff, U.K., pp. 1–6.

A. Milioudis, G. Andreou, and D. Labridis, “High impedance fault evaluation using narrowband power line communication techniques,” in Proc. 2011 IEEE Trondheim PowerTech, Trondheim, Norway, pp. 1–6.

A. Milioudis, G. Andreou, and D. Labridis, “Enhanced protection scheme for smart grids using power line communications techniques—Part I: Detection of high impedance fault occurrence,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1621–1630, Dec. 2012.

A. I. Chrysochos, T. A. Papadopoulos, A. ElSamadouny, G. K. Papagiannis, and N. Al-Dhahir, “Optimized MIMO-OFDM design for narrowband-PLC applications in medium-voltage smart distribution grids,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 140, pp. 253–262, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2016.06.017

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Factors Influencing Broadband Transmission Characteristics of Underground Low-Voltage Distribution Networks,” IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 17, pp. 2886-2893, Nov. 2012.

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Transmission characteristics of overhead medium voltage power line communication channels,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1164-1173, Jul. 2009.

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Capacity of overhead medium voltage power line communication channels,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 723-733, Apr. 2010.

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Broadband transmission via underground medium-voltage power lines-Part I: transmission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2414-2424, Oct. 2010.

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Broadband transmission via underground medium-voltage power lines-Part II: capacity,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2425-2434, Oct. 2010.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Broadband transmission characteristics of overhead high-voltage power line communication channels,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 36, pp. 373-398, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pierb36/19.11091408.pdf

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Towards broadband over power lines systems integration: Transmission characteristics of underground low-voltage distribution power lines,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, 39, pp. 89-114, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pierb39/05.12012409.pdf

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Broadband transmission and statistical performance properties of overhead high-voltage transmission networks,” Hindawi Journal of Computer Networks and Commun., 2012, article ID 875632, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/aip/875632/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Towards modal integration of overhead and underground low-voltage and medium-voltage power line communication channels in the smart grid landscape: model expansion, broadband signal transmission characteristics, and statistical performance metrics (Invited Paper),” ISRN Signal Processing, in press, [Online]. Available: http://www.isrn.com/journals/sp/aip/121628/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Review and Progress towards the Common Broadband Management of High-Voltage Transmission Grids: Model Expansion and Comparative Modal Analysis,” ISRN Electronics, vol. 2012, Article ID 935286, pp. 1-18, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/isrn/electronics/2012/935286/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Review and Progress towards the Capacity Boost of Overhead and Underground Medium-Voltage and Low-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks: Cooperative Communications through Two- and Three-Hop Repeater Systems,” ISRN Electronics, vol. 2013, Article ID 472190, pp. 1-19, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/isrn/electronics/aip/472190/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Green Overhead and Underground Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Medium Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks: Energy-Efficient Power Control,” Springer Journal of Global Optimization, vol. 2012 / Print ISSN 0925-5001, pp. 1-28, Oct. 2012.

P. Amirshahi and M. Kavehrad, “High-frequency characteristics of overhead multiconductor power lines for broadband communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1292-1303, Jul. 2006.

T. Sartenaer, “Multiuser communications over frequency selective wired channels and applications to the powerline access network” Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Catholique Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Sep. 2004.

T. Calliacoudas and F. Issa, ““Multiconductor transmission lines and cables solver,” An efficient simulation tool for plc channel networks development,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Athens, Greece, Mar. 2002.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Best L1 Piecewise Monotonic Data Approximation in Overhead and Underground Medium-Voltage and Low-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks: Theoretical and Practical Transfer Function Determination,” Hindawi Journal of Computational Engineering, vol. 2016, Article ID 6762390, 24 pages, 2016. doi: 10.1155/2016/6762390.

I. C. Demetriou and M. J. D. Powell, “Least squares smoothing of univariate data to achieve piecewise monotonicity,” IMA J. of Numerical Analysis, vol. 11, pp. 411-432, 1991.

I. C. Demetriou and V. Koutoulidis“On Signal Restoration by Piecewise Monotonic Approximation”, in Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science: Proceedings of The World Congress on Engineering 2013,London, U.K., Jul. 2013, pp. 268-273.

I. C. Demetriou, “An application of best 𝐿1 piecewise monotonic data approximation to signal restoration,” IAENG International Journal of Applied Mathematics, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 226-232, 2013.

I. C. Demetriou, “L1PMA: A Fortran 77 Package for Best L1 Piecewise Monotonic Data Smoothing,” Computer Physics Communications, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 315-338, 2003.

I. C. Demetriou, “Data Smoothing by Piecewise Monotonic Divided Differences,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 1985.

I. C. Demetriou, “Best L1 Piecewise Monotonic Data Modelling,”Int. Trans. Opl Res., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 85-94,1994.

I.C. Demetriou, “L1PMA: a Fortran 77 package for best L1 piecewise monotonic data smoothing,” 2003 http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRF

T. Sartenaer and P. Delogne, “Deterministic modelling of the (Shielded) outdoor powerline channel based on the multiconductor transmission line equations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1277-1291, Jul. 2006.

OPERA1, D5: Pathloss as a function of frequency, distance and network topology for various LV and MV European powerline networks. IST Integrated Project No 507667, Apr. 2005.

P. Amirshahi, “Broadband access and home networking through powerline networks” Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA, May 2006. [Online]. Available: http://etda.libraries.psu.edu/theses/approved/WorldWideIndex/ETD-1205/index.html

OPERA1, D44: Report presenting the architecture of plc system, the electricity network topologies, the operating modes and the equipment over which PLC access system will be installed, IST Integr. Project No 507667, Dec. 2005.

T. Banwell and S. Galli, “A novel approach to accurate modeling of the indoor power line channel—Part I: Circuit analysis and companion model,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 655-663, Apr. 2005.

S. Galli and T. Banwell, “A novel approach to accurate modeling of the indoor power line channel — Part II: Transfer function and channel properties,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1869-1878, Jul. 2005.

S. Galli and T. Banwell, “A deterministic frequency-domain model for the indoor power line transfer function,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1304-1316, Jul. 2006.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, A. M. Sarafi, and P. G. Cottis, “The emerging smart grid — A pilot MV/BPL network installed at Lavrion, Greece,” in Proc. Workshop on Applications for Powerline Communications WSPLC 2008, Thessaloniki, Greece, Oct. 2008. [Online]. Available: http://newton.ee.auth.gr/WSPLC08/Abstracts%5CSG_3.pdf

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17737/tre.2016.2.3.0027

### Refbacks

- There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Copyright @2014-2020 Trends in Renewable Energy (ISSN: 2376-2136, online ISSN: 2376-2144)