Main Line Fault Localization Methodology (MLFLM) in Smart Grid – The Underground Medium- and Low-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks Case

Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos

Abstract


This paper assesses the performance of the main line fault localization methodology (MLFLM) when its application is extended to underground medium- and low-voltage broadband over power lines (UN MV and UN LV BPL) networks, say UN distribution BPL networks.  This paper focuses on the localization of main distribution line faults across UV MV and UN LV BPL networks. By extending the MLFLM procedure, which has successfully been applied to overhead medium-voltage (OV MV) BPL networks, the performance assessment of MLFLM is investigated with respect to the nature of the main distribution line faults, the intensity of the measurement differences and the fault location across the main distribution lines of the underground distribution power grid (either MV or LV grid).

Citation: Lazaropoulos, A. G. (2017). Main Line Fault Localization Methodology (MLFLM) in Smart Grid – The Underground Medium- and Low-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks Case. Trends in Renewable Energy, 4, 15-42. DOI: 10.17737/tre.2018.4.1.0045


Keywords


Smart Grid; Intelligent Energy Systems; Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) Networks;Power Line Communications (PLC); Faults; Fault Analysis; Fault Localization; Distribution Power Grids

Full Text:

FULL TEXT (PDF)

References


S. Ezzine, F. Abdelkefi, J. P. Cances, V. Meghdadi, and A. Bouallégue, “Evaluation of PLC Channel Capacity and ABER Performances for OFDM-Based Two-Hop Relaying Transmission,” Hindawi Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2017, ArticleID 4827274, pp. 1-12, 2017.

F. A. Pinto-Benel, M. Blanco-Velasco, and F. Cruz-Roldán, “Throughput Analysis for Wavelet OFDM in Broadband Power Line Communications,” 2017. [Online]. Available: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/55ee/c64f1b4533f1be2d21db993b48eda3d96f38.pdf (accessed on 12/28/2017).

IEEE P1901, “Draft Standard for Broadband over Power Line Networks: Medium Access Control and Physical Layer Specifications”, 2010. [Online]. Available: http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/1901/index.html (accessed on 12/28/2017).

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Transmission characteristics of overhead medium voltage power line communication channels,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1164-1173, Jul. 2009.

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Capacity of overhead medium voltage power line communication channels,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 723-733, Apr. 2010.

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Broadband transmission via underground medium-voltage power lines-Part I: transmission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2414-2424, Oct. 2010.

A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Broadband transmission via underground medium-voltage power lines-Part II: capacity,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2425-2434, Oct. 2010.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Broadband transmission characteristics of overhead high-voltage power line communication channels,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 36, pp. 373-398, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pierb36/19.11091408.pdf

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Capacity Performance of Overhead Transmission Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Broadband over Power Lines Networks:

The Insidious Effect of Noise and the Role of Noise Models,”

Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 61-82,

Jan. 2016. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/23

Homeplug, AV2Whitepaper, 2011, [Online]. Available: http://www.homeplug.org/techresources/resources/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Factors Influencing Broadband Transmission Characteristics of Underground Low-Voltage Distribution Networks,”

IET Commun., vol. 6, no. 17, pp. 2886-2893, Nov. 2012.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Towards broadband over power lines systems integration: Transmission characteristics of underground low-voltage distribution power lines,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, 39, pp. 89-114, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pierb39/05.12012409.pdf

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Broadband transmission and statistical performance properties of overhead high-voltage transmission networks,”Hindawi Journal of Computer Networks and Commun., 2012, article ID 875632, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/aip/875632/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Towards modal integration of overhead and underground low-voltage and medium-voltage power line communication channels in the smart grid landscape: model expansion, broadband signal transmission characteristics, and statistical performance metrics (Invited Paper),” ISRN Signal Processing, vol. 2012, Article ID 121628, 17 pages, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/121628/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Review and Progress towards the Common Broadband Management of High-Voltage Transmission Grids: Model Expansion and Comparative Modal Analysis,” ISRN Electronics, vol. 2012, Article ID 935286, pp. 1-18, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/isrn/electronics/2012/935286/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Review and Progress towards the Capacity Boost of Overhead and Underground Medium-Voltage and Low-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks: Cooperative Communications through Two- and Three-Hop Repeater Systems,” ISRN Electronics, vol. 2013, Article ID 472190, pp. 1-19, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/isrn/electronics/aip/472190/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Green Overhead and Underground Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Medium Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks: Energy-Efficient Power Control,” Springer Journal of Global Optimization, vol. 2012 / Print ISSN 0925-5001, pp. 1-28, Oct. 2012.

P. Amirshahi and M. Kavehrad, “High-frequency characteristics of overhead multiconductor power lines for broadband communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1292-1303, Jul. 2006.

T. Sartenaer, “Multiuser communications over frequency selective wired channels and applications to the powerline access network” Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Catholique Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Sep. 2004. [Online} Available: https://dial.uclouvain.be/pr/boreal/en/object/boreal%3A5010/datastream/PDF_12/view (accessed on 12/28/2017).

T. Calliacoudas and F. Issa, ““Multiconductor transmission lines and cables solver,” An efficient simulation tool for plc channel networks development,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Athens, Greece, Mar. 2002.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Best L1 Piecewise Monotonic Data Approximation in Overhead and Underground Medium-Voltage and Low-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks: Theoretical and Practical Transfer Function Determination,” Hindawi Journal of Computational Engineering, vol. 2016, Article ID 6762390, 24 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/6762390. [Online]. Available: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcengi/2016/6762390/cta/

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Measurement Differences, Faults and Instabilities in Intelligent Energy Systems – Part 1: Identification of Overhead High-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Network Topologies by Applying Topology Identification Methodology (TIM),” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 85 – 112, Oct. 2016.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Measurement Differences, Faults and Instabilities in Intelligent Energy Systems – Part 2: Fault and Instability Prediction in Overhead High-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks by Applying Fault and Instability Identification Methodology (FIIM),” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 113 – 142, Oct. 2016. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/27/33

I. C. Demetriou and M. J. D. Powell, “Least squares smoothing of univariate data to achieve piecewise monotonicity,”IMA J. of Numerical Analysis, vol. 11, pp. 411-432, 1991.

I. C. Demetriou and V. Koutoulidis, “On Signal Restoration by Piecewise Monotonic Approximation”, in Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science: Proceedings of The World Congress on Engineering 2013, London, U.K., Jul. 2013, pp. 268-273.

I. C. Demetriou, “An application of best 𝐿1 piecewise monotonic data approximation to signal restoration,” IAENG International Journal of Applied Mathematics, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 226-232, 2013.

I. C. Demetriou, “L1PMA: A Fortran 77 Package for Best L1 Piecewise Monotonic Data Smoothing,” Computer Physics Communications, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 315-338, 2003.

I. C. Demetriou, “Data Smoothing by Piecewise Monotonic Divided Differences,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 1985.

I. C. Demetriou, “Best L1 Piecewise Monotonic Data Modelling,” Int. Trans. Opl Res., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 85-94, 1994.

http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRF

I. C. Demetriou, “Algorithm 863: L2WPMA, a Fortran 77 package for weighted least-squares piecewise monotonic data approximation,” ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS), vol. 33, no.1, pp. 6, 2007.

I. C. Demetriou, “L2CXCV: A Fortran 77 package for least squares convex/concave data smoothing,” Computer physics communications, vol. 174, no.8,pp. 643-668, 2006.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Main Line Fault Localization Methodology in Smart Grid – Part 1: Extended TM2 Method for the Overhead Medium-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks Case,” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 2 – 25, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/36/pdf

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Main Line Fault Localization Methodology in Smart Grid – Part 2: Extended TM2 Method, Measurement Differences and L1 Piecewise Monotonic Data Approximation for the Overhead Medium-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks Case,” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 26 – 61, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/37/pdf

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Power Systems Stability through Piecewise Monotonic Data Approximations – Part 1: Comparative Benchmarking of L1PMA, L2WPMA and L2CXCV in Overhead Medium-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks,” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 2 – 32, Jan. 2017. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/29/34

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Power Systems Stability through Piecewise Monotonic Data Approximations – Part 2: Adaptive Number of Monotonic Sections and Performance of L1PMA, L2WPMA and L2CXCV in Overhead Medium-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines Networks,” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 33 – 60, Jan. 2017. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/30/35

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Improvement of Power Systems Stability by Applying Topology Identification Methodology (TIM) and Fault and Instability Identification Methodology (FIIM) – Study of the Overhead Medium-Voltage Broadband over Power Lines (OV MV BPL) Networks Case,” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 102 – 128, Apr. 2017. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/34/pdf

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Main Line Fault Localization Methodology in Smart Grid – Part 3: Main Line Fault Localization Methodology (MLFLM),” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 62 – 81, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/38/pdf

OPERA1, D5: Pathloss as a function of frequency, distance and network topology for various LV and MV European powerline networks. IST Integrated Project No 507667, Apr. 2005.

P. C. J. M. van der Wielen, “On-line detection and location of partial discharges in medium-voltage power cables” Ph.D. dissertation, Tech. Univ. Eindhoven, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, Apr. 2005.

P. C. J. M. van der Wielen, E. F. Steennis, and P. A. A. F. Wouters, “Fundamental aspects of excitation and propagation of on-line partial discharge signals in three-phase medium voltage cable systems,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 678-688, Aug. 2003.

M. Tang, and M. Zhai, “Research of transmission parameters of four-conductor cables for power line communication,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Computer Science and Software Engineering, Wuhan, China, Dec. 2008, vol. 5, pp. 1306–1309.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “A Panacea to Inherent BPL Technology Deficiencies by Deploying Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) Connections with Multi-Hop Repeater Systems,” Bentham Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 30-46, 2017.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Underground Distribution BPL Connections with (N + 1)-hop Repeater Systems: A Novel Capacity Mitigation Technique,” Elsevier Computers and Electrical Engineering, vol. 40, pp. 1813-1826, 2014.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) Systems Convergence: Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Communications Analysis of Overhead and Underground Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage BPL Networks (Invited Paper),” ISRN Power Engineering, vol. 2013, Article ID 517940, pp. 1-30, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.hindawi.com/isrn/power.engineering/2013/517940/

DLC+VIT4IP, D1.2: Overall system architecture design DLC system architecture. FP7 Integrated Project No 247750, Jun. 2010.

T. Sartenaer and P. Delogne, “Deterministic modelling of the (Shielded) outdoor powerline channel based on the multiconductor transmission line equations,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1277-1291, Jul. 2006.

OPERA1, D44: Report presenting the architecture of plc system, the electricity network topologies, the operating modes and the equipment over which PLC access system will be installed, IST Integr. Project No 507667, Dec. 2005.

N. Theethayi, “Electromagnetic interference in distributed outdoor electrical systems, with an emphasis on lightning interaction with electrified railway network,” Ph.D. dissertation, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala, Sweden, Sep. 2005, [Online]. Available: http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:166746/FULLTEXT01

J. Anatory, N. Theethayi, R. Thottappillil, M. M. Kissaka, and N. H. Mvungi, “The influence of load impedance, line length, and branches on underground cable Power-Line Communications (PLC) systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 180-187, Jan. 2008.

J. Anatory, N. Theethayi, and R. Thottappillil, “Power-line communication channel model for interconnected networks-Part II: Multiconductor system,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 124-128, Jan. 2009.

J. Anatory, N. Theethayi, R. Thottappillil, M. M. Kissaka, and N. H. Mvungi, “The effects of load impedance, line length, and branches in typical low-voltage channels of the BPLC systems of developing countries: transmission-line analyses,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 621-629, Apr. 2009.

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Designing Broadband over Power Lines Networks Using the Techno-Economic Pedagogical (TEP) Method – Part II: Overhead Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage Channels and Their Modal Transmission Characteristics,” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 59-86, Jun. 2015. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/6/16

A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Designing Broadband over Power Lines Networks Using the Techno-Economic Pedagogical (TEP) Method – Part I: Overhead High Voltage Networks and Their Capacity Characteristics (Invited Review Article),” Trends in Renewable Energy, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 16-42, Mar. 2015. [Online]. Available: http://futureenergysp.com/index.php/tre/article/view/2

A. Canova, N. Benvenuto, and P. Bisaglia, “Receivers for MIMO-PLC channels: Throughput comparison,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Mar. 2010, pp. 114–119.

D. Schneider, J. Speidel, L. Stadelmeier, and D. Schill, “Precoded spatial multiplexing MIMO for inhome power line communications,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, New Orleans, LA, USA, Nov./Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5.

M. Zimmermann and K. Dostert, “Analysis and modeling of impulsive noise in

broad-band powerline communications,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 249-258, Feb. 2002.

T. Esmailian, F. R. Kschischang, and P. G. Gulak, “In-building power lines as high-speed communication channels: Channel characterization and a test channel ensemble,” Int. J. Commun. Syst., vol. 16, pp. 381–400, May 2003.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17737/tre.2018.4.1.0045

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Copyright @2014-2019 Trends in Renewable Energy (ISSN: 2376-2136, online ISSN: 2376-2144)